# The Compass

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## What is a Compass?

For a very long time, people have used a compass to determine the cardinal directions. The compass is a brilliant invention, commonly introduced to children in elementary school, where they learn how to use one. Before we examine the composition and functions of the compass in greater detail, here's a simple explanation of what a compass is:

A compass is a magnetized metal needle stuck onto a small pin and an indicator disk showing the cardinal directions. The magnetized needle of a compass always points northwards. If you align your compass with the northern direction indicated on the compass, you can determine all the cardinal directions.

## The Composition of a Compass

Let’s look at how a compass is built:

• Located within the compass is a so-called wind rose, usually displaying the four cardinal directions of north, east, south, and west, as well as the four ordinal directions of northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.

• In the center of the compass lies a small metal needle, which is magnetized and movable, typically colored on the side that faces north.

• The compass’s case is sometimes encircled by a rotatable bezel marked with numbers and degrees, which allows you to determine directions even more accurately.

## How Does a Compass Work?

How do you use a compass? You hold the compass and rotate it until the colored tip of the needle aligns with north. But why does the compass needle point north?

• Deep within the earth are magnetic forces.

• These magnetic forces are located roughly around the two poles of the earth, creating a magnetic north pole and a magnetic south pole, thus generating a magnetic field called the Earth's magnetic field.

• Opposite poles attract—that's why the compass needle is magnetically charged in opposition with the Arctic magnetic pole in the north. This causes it to always rotate in the direction of north, towards its opposing pole.

• The geographic pole and the magnetic pole in the Northern Hemisphere are not exactly located at the same point. The magnetic field also varies in different places, with the resulting discrepancies having little impact on compass accuracy in natural areas.

• The compass can behave erratically if there is another magnet nearby. When the earth's magnetic field is distorted by another magnetic field, the compass needle can malfunction.

Now that you know how to align the needle of the compass, you can use it to orient yourself in the field. When you align the compass needle along the north direction, you can read off all the cardinal directions on the compass.

You can also orient the map using the compass. Follow these steps to use a compass to orient the map:

Step # What to do
1 Place the compass onto the map so that the
north direction on the compass points upwards.
2 Rotate the map until the compass needle aligns along
the north direction. At this point, the map is now oriented,
and you can read off in which direction things are located.

Where does the needle point on a compass?
How do you read a compass correctly?
What are the parts of a compass?
What is the structure of a compass?
Where was the compass invented?
What can you do with a compass?
How do you find north with a compass?

### TranscriptThe Compass

Mio loves ice cream. He found out there's a great new ice cream parlor south of town that sells milk-flavored ice cream. Mio has a map but doesn't know which way to go. Let's help Mio find the right direction to go by learning about The Compass. This is Mio's compass. The compass needle... can rotate. The case surrounds the compass needle... and around the needle are letters. Do you know what the letters stand for? The N stands for north, the S is for south, … the E is for east... and W stands for west. These are called cardinal points! In addition to the letters, there is a wind rose under the compass needle. With a wind rose, you can read the different cardinal directions even more accurately. The wind rose points to directions that show northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest. Mio can also find a compass rose on his map. And how does the compass know where the ice cream parlor is? It doesn't! But how does it work? A compass works with an invisible force. We call it magnetism. The earth acts like a giant magnet with two magnetic poles. Magnets are attracted to the poles of the earth. The compass needle is a small magnet that can move freely. One side of the compass needle is usually red, … and always attracted to the north. This is why the compass needle always points in the same direction. But beware! If a strong current or another magnet is nearby, the compass needle can point in the wrong direction. And if you travel all the way to the magnetic pole in the arctic... it even spins in circles! So when Mio looks at the compass, the red tip of the compass needle points north. Therefore, Mio knows which direction is north. If Mio wants to go another direction he can rotate the compass to the north and he will know which direction to go! The ice cream parlor is SOUTH of the city, so it's in THIS direction. How can Mio now plan the route with his map? With the help of the compass rose, he rotates his map so that the N of the compass rose on the map is in the same direction in which the compass needle is pointing. So if Mio is holding the map like this, North is in front of him and the orientation of the roads on the map matches the real roads. He can follow his plan and head south. Let’s review what we learned. The heart of the compass is the compass needle, the wind rose is shown underneath and represents the cardinal points. The case surrounds the compass rose. The compass needle is a small magnet that aligns with the Earth's magnetic poles. You can use the compass to find locations on maps. And where is Mio now? OH, he's already eaten his ice cream and is already thinking about the next ice cream parlor because it's supposed to have particularly delicious fish ice cream!

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## The Compass exercise

Would you like to apply the knowledge you’ve learned? You can review and practice it with the tasks for the video The Compass .
• ### What are the parts of a compass?

Hints

You can use the compass to find locations on maps, but a map isn't part of a compass.

A magnet has poles, but a compass does not.

Cardinal points are North, South, East, and West.

Solution

The parts of a compass are the Compass Needle, Case, Cardinal Points, and Wind Rose.

• You can use the compass to find locations on maps, but the map is not part of the compass.
• The compass uses the Earth's magnetic poles, but it does not have poles.
• The compass needle is a small magnet that can move and spin freely to show the cardinal points. Though the compass needle spins, the compass doesn’t include a spinner.

• ### Can you label each of the cardinal points?

Hints

What do the letters N, E, S, and W stand for?

Use the image to help you remember. What do N, S, E, and W stand for?

The wind rose helps us to see the points between the four main cardinal points. We can find Northeast by looking between the cardinal directions North and East.

Solution

The compass needle points to four cardinal points: North, South, East, and West.
The wind rose points to even more accurate cardinal points: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest.

• ### Now that we know the cardinal points on a compass, we can help Mio better understand how the compass works

Hints

Remember, the compass needle always points in the same direction. Which direction does it point in?

Remember, magnetism moves the compass needle.

Remember, magnets are attracted to the poles of the earth.

Solution

A compass works with an invisible force. We call it magnetism.
The earth acts like a giant magnet with two magnetic poles.
Magnets are attracted to the poles of the earth. The compass needle is a small magnet that can move freely.
One side of the compass needle is usually red and always attracted to the North.

• ### How can Mio use his map to plan another route?

Hints

Use the compass rose to help you. Do you remember what the N, S, E, and W stand for? The N stands for north, the S is for south, the E is for east, and W stands for west.

We can use the compass needle points to see the four cardinal points.
We use the wind rose, underneath the compass needle, to read the different cardinal directions even more accurately.
Do you remember the cardinal directions on the wind rose?

With a wind rose, you can read the different cardinal directions even more accurately. The wind rose points to directions that show northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.

Solution

With the help of the compass rose, Mio rotates his map so that the N of the compass rose on the map is in the same direction in which the compass needle is pointing. If Mio is holding the map as pictured, North is in front of him and the orientation of the roads on the map matches the real roads. He can follow his plan and head southeast to the fish ice cream shop.

• ### How can Mio plan a route with his compass and map?

Hints

Use the compass rose to help you. Do you remember what the letters on the compass rose stand for?

On the compass, N stands for North, E stands for East, S stands for South, and W stands for West. Which way should Mio go to get to his friend's house?

Which direction will Mio go to get to his friend's house?

Solution

Mio will need to travel West to go to his friend's house.
Use the compass rose to help you determine which direction to go. On the map, we can see Mio's friends house is to the West of him. He will need to go West to reach his friend's house.

Hints

The cardinal points on the compass tell you which way you need to go.
If Mio is traveling up, he is going North.
If Mio moves down, he is going South.
If Mio moves to the right, he is going East.
If Mio is traveling to the left, he is going West.

Can you find each of these places on the map?

Solution

Mio's house is south of Uma's house. You will need to travel south to get to Mio's house from Uma's house.
The ice cream shop is west of the park. You will need to travel west to get to the ice cream shop from the park.
The park is north of the school. You will need to travel north from the school to get to the park.
The school is east of Mio's house. You will need to travel east from the school to get to Mio's house.
Uma's house is northwest of the park. You will need to travel northwest from park to get to Uma's house.
Mio's house is southwest of the park. You will need to travel southwest from the park to get to Mio's house.