Try sofatutor for 30 Days

Discover why over 1.6 MILLION students choose sofatutor!

Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed)

Rating

Ø 5.0 / 3 ratings
The authors
Avatar
Team Digital
Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed)
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.3.2E

Basics on the topic Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed)

Suffixes in the English Language

English is a language rich in morphology, where word formation is often achieved through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. Suffixes, in particular, play a vital role in creating tenses, comparing adjectives, and forming nouns. Among these, the -ed suffix stands out due to its significance in making past tense for regular verbs.

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Regular Verbs

Regular verbs are verbs that keep the root of the word in different tenses.

They are called regular verbs because they follow simple rules when being changed to different tenses, simply taking on the -ed suffix in their past tense form.

Three ways to use the -ed suffix for regular verbs are:

1 Most verbs will simply take the -ed without any alteration, like "play" becoming "played."

Let’s take a look at some examples :

Present tense Past tense
play played
look looked
kick kicked

2 If the verb ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel and the stress is on the last syllable, you'll need to double the final consonant before adding the suffix -ed. For instance, "admit" becomes "admitted."

Let’s take a look at some more examples :

Present tense Past tense
hop hopped
stop stopped
rub rubbed

25926_SEO-22.svg

3 Verbs ending with a silent 'e' will drop that 'e' before taking the -ed suffix. Thus, "dance" turns into "danced."

Let’s take a look at some more examples :

Present tense Past tense
name named
close closed
tire tired

25926_SEO-29.svg

4 When a word ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed. For example, enjoy ends with a vowel before the y, so add -ed to make the word enjoyed.

Let’s take a look at some more examples :

Present tense Past tense
enjoy enjoyed
stay stayed
play played

25926_SEO-35.svg

6 When a verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed. For example, carry ends with a consonant then y, so replace the y with an i, and add -ed to make the word carried.

Let’s take a look at some more examples :

Present tense Past tense
carry carried
try tried
copy copied

25926_SEO-42.svg

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Pronunciation

Adding the suffix -ed doesn't always mean the pronunciation will sound like "ed." There are three distinct pronunciations are:

/t/ as in "watched" /d/ as in "played" /ɪd/ as in "wanted"

The preceding sound of the base verb determines which pronunciation is used.

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Irregular Verbs

This might be the most challenging aspect about the past tense for many English learners.

Whilst regular verbs in English language simply use the -ed suffix to change into past tense, irregular verbs do not use any predictable patterns for past tense forms. They can change in unpredictable ways, like "go" to "went" or "see" to "saw." To learn more about irregular verbs please watch the video about regular and irregular verbs.

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Adding suffixes to words will inevitably present you with some potential mistakes. However, you can easily overcome them if you are aware of where these mistakes are likely to occur. Some common errors include:

  • 1 Overgeneralizing the -ed rule and applying it to irregular verbs. Always check if the verb is regular or irregular, and only apply the suffix -ed to regular verbs.

  • 2 Incorrectly doubling consonants or dropping the silent 'e'. For any regular verb, check which of the three rules from above list apply. With some practice and recall, you will quickly remember which rule applies to the regular verbs. Another suggestion is to read a lot. Seeing words in their correct form helps reinforce the right spelling.

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Conclusion

The -ed suffix, though seemingly simple, has its intricacies. By understanding its rules and exceptions, learners can navigate the waters of past tense verbs with ease. There is an adding suffixes worksheet to help you get more practice, and see what different base words to add suffixes to there are!

Basic Rules for Adding -ed – Frequently Asked Questions

Why don't all verbs take the -ed ending in the past tense?
How do I pronounce the -ed ending of "watched"?
Are there exceptions to the doubling consonant rule before -ed?
How can I remember the difference between regular and irregular verbs?
Can I use the -ed ending with adjectives?
What are some common mistakes made by learners with the -ed ending?

Transcript Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed)

"Hello Grandma!" "We have so much to tell you about our weekend!" "Wait... Koko, how do we explain what we did?" Let's help Koko and Pip learn about adding suffixes to base words. Suffixes are word parts that are added to base, or root, words that can change the meaning. Today, we will be learning about a suffix that can change verbs from present tense to past tense. This suffix is -ed. Let's look at the rules for this suffix! If the verb ends with two consonants, we keep the spelling, and add -ed. For example, walk ends in two consonants, so add -ed to make the past tense, walked. What about the word, jump? Jump ends with two consonants so add -ed to make the word, jumped. Here is the next rule: When a verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed. For example, hop has a short vowel sound and a single consonant, so double the final consonant and add -ed to make the past tense, hopped. What about the word, plan? Plan has a short vowel sound and a single consonant, so double the final consonant and add -ed to make the past tense, planned. Here is the next rule: When a verb ends with a silent e and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix -ed. For example, use has a silent e, so drop the e and add -ed to make the past tense of the verb, used. What about the word, excite? Excite has a silent e, so drop the e and add -ed to make the past tense, excited. Here is the next rule: When a verb ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed. For example, enjoy ends with a vowel then a y, so keep the y and add -ed to make the past tense, enjoyed. What about the word, stay? Stay ends in a vowel then a y, so add -ed to get the past tense, stayed. Here is the final rule: When a verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed. For example, the verb carry ends in a consonant then y, so replace the y with an i, then add -ed to make the past tense verb carried. What about the word, reply? Reply has a consonant then a y so replace the y with an i, then add -ed, to make the past tense, replied. While Koko and Pip tell Grandma all about their weekend, let's review! Remember, verbs can be changed to past tense by adding the suffix -ed. We can follow special rules such as these, these, and this one! “So we walked to the park. Then we went to the store where we shopped! We used all of our gift cards." "We really enjoyed our day, and we carried everything home!" "Koko... we were on mute the whole time!"

1 comment
1 comment
  1. I learned about present , past ,future!
    That's great!
    I'm gonna learn more!

    From Alexandra, 8 months ago

Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed) exercise

Would you like to apply the knowledge you’ve learned? You can review and practice it with the tasks for the video Adding Suffixes to Base Words (-ed).
  • What is the past tense verb?

    Hints

    The image provides an example of how to use the rule.

    The image provides another example of how to use the rule.

    Solution

    The sentence uses this rule:

    • You need to double the final consonant (p) and add -ed
    • The past tense of skip is skipped
  • Complete the sentences.

    Hints

    The image provides an example of how to use the rule in the first sentence.

    The image provides an example of how to use the rule in the second sentence.

    Solution

    The first sentence uses this rule: Verb ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed.

    • You need to keep the y and add -ed
    • The past tense of play is played

    The second sentence uses this rule: Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed.

    • You need to double the final consonant and add -ed
    • The past tense of pop is popped
  • What are the past tense verbs?

    Hints

    • Here is the rule for bake:
    Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix.

    • Here is the rule for plan:
    Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed.

    • Here is the rule for try:
    Verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed.

    Solution
    • Baked follows this rule:
    Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix.
    • Planned follows this rule:
    Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed.
    • Tried follows this rule:
    Verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed.
  • Suffix practice.

    Hints

    Here are examples of the first two rules:

    • walked uses this rule:
    • Verb ends in two consonants, add -ed
    • stopped uses this rule:
    • Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed

    Here are examples of the next two rules:

    • hoped uses this rule:
    • Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix
    • annoyed uses this rule:
    • Verb ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed
    Solution
    • jumped uses this rule:
    • Verb ends in two consonants, add -ed
    • planned uses this rule:
    • Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed
    • excited uses this rule:
    • Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix
    • enjoyed uses this rule:
    • Verb ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed
  • Verb tenses.

    Hints

    Here is an example of adding the suffix -ed to a word:

    • We hopped over the hole.
    • Which tense does hopped use?

    Did it happen in the past (before now), present (right now), or future (after now)?

    Solution

    Verbs are changed to past tense by adding the suffix - ed.

  • Past tense verbs.

    Hints

    Here are the first two rules:

    • Rule 1: Verb ends in two consonants, add -ed
    • Rule 2: Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed

    Here are the next three rules:

    • Rule 3: Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix
    • Rule 4: Verb ends with a vowel before y, keep the y and add -ed
    • Rule 5: Verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed.

    Here is an example:

    (enjoy) I enjoyed the ride.

    • The past tense word of enjoy, is enjoyed.
    Solution

    (try) We tried to go get ice cream.

    • Tried follows this rule: Verb ends in a consonant then y, replace the y with an i, then add -ed.
    (close) The store was closed.

    • Closed follows this rule: Verb ends with a silent "e" and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the e and add the suffix.
    (hop) Pip fell on the ground because he hopped so high.

    • Hopped follows this rule: Verb ends in a short vowel sound and a single consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed.
    (help) Coco helped him up.

    • Helped follows this rule: Verb ends in two consonants, add -ed.